Things You Did Not Know About Early Christianity In Ngao

First Missionary in Tana River - Methodist Church

After the first wave of baptism of Pokomos which happened in 1894, there was a second baptism which occurred in 1896 and among who were baptized included:

  • Chrisstian Dua
  • Filipo Kagala
  • Natanael Didila
  • Mungatana Ndumari
  • Gwiyo
  • Jilo Kutii

This was a major milestone and a platform to expand the gospel to the interior of Pokomo lands.

In 1898, the Neukirchen mission were given 30 acres of land by the government for a lease of 99 years. With this huge chunk of land at there disposal, the Neukirchen started building their house for residence. By 1899 they moved from the river bank residence to Milimani in Ngao.

The missionaries continued spreading their gospel and in the period of 1904-1906, the famous Ngao Methodist church was constructed.

In 1914 during the first World War, all Germans missionaries were captured and transported to India. The Neukirchen missionaries left the Pokomo land without notice. As a result, the Neukirchen churches were left unattended. The locals had to take over and run the churches. They included;

  • Simon Ubo (Ngao)
  • Reuben Dala
  • Benjamin Dhumari (Mwanadhamba)
  • Mishael Bahari (Garsen)
  • Emmanuel Joseph (Kulesa)
  • Abae Galana (Wenje)

They continued managing the churches until 1926, when the Neukirchen missionaries returned. Among the missionaries included, August Kraft, Mr and Mrs Karl Baker, Henrinch May among others.

During the period of 1926 to 1939, a lot had happened including the building of Ngao and Hola hospitals, more conversions which extended to Giriama, teachers were sent to Jeanes School in Kabete to expand their knowledge among others.


When the World War 2 started, all the strategies the missionaries had in planned, including building a secondary school was stopped. All missionaries left the land except Mr and Mrs Wilhelm May who later were captured in Wenje as war slaves.

During the war period, churches and schools were managed by locals. There was hope that one day the Neukerchen missions would once more return.

Later the Christians then joined Church Mission Society (CMS). This made Rev. Leonard Beacher and Elizabeth Beacher come to preach gospel and songs in 1941.

In 1942, the Methodists complained to the government that them and Neukirchen were spreading gospel in the region so they requested to be given the role left by Neukirchen to spread the gospel.

This made the period of 1943-1944 see people flocking to Methodist Missionary Society (MMS) to seek knowledge. Among members who benefited from this included; Asser Sylvano, Yona Nkanu, Timona Marko, Yohana Stefano, Jato Amos, Lisania Onesmus, Bampae Samaitwa, Yuda, Daniel Filipo, and Jackson Galana.

In 1945 there was a conference and all churches met at Ngao. The main agenda was to decide which mission was to govern the Pokomo churches. After a long discussion, churches in Ngatana, Kulesa, Marembo and all churches in upper regions chose to follow the Methodists while the Buus, Kalindi and people from Lamu chose to stay with Neukirchen.

See Also:  Drought Resistant Crops Farmers In Tanariver Can Plant

The final decision was decided that the missionaries were free to visit all churches in all regions if they wish to.

In 1947, a conference held in London decided that the Neukirchen will never be allowed back in Pokomo and all churches will be under the Methodist church.

Ngao Village

When news reached Ngao, they were furious. In 1948, Rev. George Martlew of Methodist wanted to visit the church in Ngao but was chased away by Rev. Simeon Ubo. His defence was that the Methodist refused the Neukirchen to visit Pokomo land, so they also will not allow them to come to Ngao unless it was a matter concerning education.

The incidence had repercussion as the reverent was also the manager of Methodist Mission Society (MMS). The following happened;

  • All Buu schools were closed
  • All donations from the government stopped
  • All teachers were suspended from duty

The teachers did not give up and they continued with their work under Young Buu Association (YBA). Students did their exams and performed well. At the same time there was a complaint lodged to the government about the issue. It did not take time as the schools were later opened, donations from government resumed and teachers were recalled back to duty.

In 1950, a meeting was held at Ngao chaired by Lamu DC with all MMS and all churches in the land. They all agreed that; Methodist to work in all churches and all church leaders to work with Methodist.


During the period of 1950-1966, the churches under Neukirchen Mission (NM) wanted at least the NM to visit them with no luck. They even went ahead and started ‘Tana Independence Church’ which was not successful.

In 1967 the churches under NM finally decided to join African Inland Mission(AIM) so that Neukirchen can get a chance to visit them through AIM.

In 1970, Lisania M. Buya as an Assistant Education Officer was in England for education. He was invited by Rev. Fritz Gissel in Neukirchen, German and the reverant complained about not been given chance to visit Tanariver as AIM is not giving them permission.

When he returned to England, he met a committee of Africa Inland Mission (AIM) Home Office in London and complained about the following;

  • How Christians reached Tanariver through Neukirchen Mission
  • Why Kenya is independent but still the key to Christianity is still in London
  • Political rivalry between MMS (England) and NM (Germany)

Mr Buya threatened the Home Office that he was the weakest and lowest ranked person among the Pokomos. So, if the message reaches the Pokomos that they had stopped the NM because of political issues then any decision that the Pokomo would take England will be responsible for everything.

Later that year, to their surprise, the Neukirchen Mission were in Tanarive for the first time since the end of the second World War.


  1. Mr. Morowa, this is an article I had typed myself and preserved in the web. The original author of the article is Paulo Pakia (1922). Other information was added by Lysania Buya. You did not acknowledge them. Here is the original draft


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    The coming of Christianity among the Pokomo

    February 20 2015 at 4:31 AMSAMUEL BONAYA BUYA  (Login sbonayab)


    The original form was written By the Paul Pakia who was born in 1921. Before he died he left it to Mr. Lysania M. Buya (Born 29th January 1929) who also added some contents to it. 
    About six years ago Mr. Lysania M. Buya approached his cousin Samuel Bonaya Buya to type for him the same. It has been the wish of Lysania Buya that this content be published.
    I have sent this document to this site to safeguard the rights of the original living author Lysania Buya as directed by Him. It is my hope that it will help to give the reader insight into the History of my people the Pokomo
    Samuel Bonaya Buya 
    1884: God sent Rev. Ferdinand Wϋrtz together with Webar here in Africa to learn of way of life. They started their work in Egypt but finally landed in Lamu Island. 
    1887: on 17th March 1887 a missionary by the Name, Rev. Wϋrtz in fulfillment of God’s call came to the original Ngao village, Tana –Delta District. The original Ngao village was across the river Tana in relation to the present town. He immediately started work of evangelism of the word of God. He was nicknamed ‘’ Bwana Mwalimu’’ which means Lord Teacher because of the peculiar way he worked. Reverend Wϋrtz worked in the company of his fellow Missionary, Hanrich Blecher.
    To make his task more effective, Wurtz took up introduced his students to basic skills of reading and writing
    1888: The missionary Webar arrived at Ngao accompanied by his wife.
    During this year the missionary house he constructed was destroyed by Somali bandits who attacked on the month of March this same year.
    On Sunday 26th July this year, the missionary Blecher after a bout of Malaria attack. 
    1889: three missionaries from Neukrichen Mission, Germany came to Lamu and started a mission station there.
    Because of frequent attacks from the Somali, the missionaries who were in the original Ngao decided to relocate to Silowa or Kisichi, (a corner of the current Ngao). 
    1890: Fighting broke out in Witu around September. Valiant men from Ngao risked their lives to save the lives of their missionaries by sending them to Lamu.
    Later on this same year Rev. Wϋrtz together with some of his fellow missionaries with the help of a man called Abadula managed to publish the first Pokomo dictionary and a book in Pokomo language called CHIKWE
    1891: By this year Ngao was rebuilt in the place it is currently situated. The decision was made attacks by Somali bandits had become too frequent. During this same year the missionaries that had taken refuge in Lamu Returned to Ngao with Rev. Stursbeg. The people welcomed great joy and feasting.
    The reverend Stursbeg agreed with the Methodist missionaries (For the Methodists claimed that the whole area between Lake Shakababo and the river was theirs since it was sold to them by an Orma elder. The Pokomos refuted the claim since the area was there farming land) who were operating area that the Methodists work among the Orma, and that they Neukirchen mission would work among the Pokomo. 
    1892: By this year the following missionaries died in Ngao because sicknesses and the harsh condition of the area:
    • Mrs. Webar
    • Hanrich Blecher
    • Regina Bőcking
    It was also in this year that the village was dedicated to God. The village was blessed by a word of prayer instead of being protected by magicians and sorcerers. In May the same year the people of Ngao in a big evangelistic conference made a decision in one accord to abandon idolatry and sacrificing to devils (Nkoma).
    1893: The first church was constructed in Ngao: Present were Rev. F. Wurtz, Webber, Kraft, Bőcking, St.Christine Sontichsen. Later on they were joined by Műlhoff, Wilh Schmidt, Heyar, Beckeer, and Sister Eva Velte.
    Rev. F. Wurtz gathered the people and wanted assurance from them that they would follow after witchcraft and things associated with it (uganga, kijo, Ngadzi, Fururie). A large congregation of Ngao people gave him the assurance that they would follow the Lord Jesus Christ alone and abandon witchcraft and other traditions contrary to the word. The majority of Ngao congregation vowed to cleave to Jesus Christ alone as their Lord and saviour. 
    1894: On March 1st of this year the first eight Pokomo Christians were baptized in Lake Shakababo. They included: KIRIPA, CHADHORO, KIRAGE, LULUTYA, SUBO, GUDINA, ZAMANI and ABADULA.
    Abadula was of great help to Rev. F. Wurtz in that he helped him to:
    i) Write the Pokomo language 
    ii) Translate the New testament to Pokomo
    iii) Translate church hymns and also translate a summary of the Old Testament to Pokomo language.
    1894: Rev. Wurtz returned to his homeland where he died aged 36. The Missionaries who had hitherto been working with him were not discouraged but continued on with their effort to publish the gospel. During this same year the Saint Mark’s Gospel was published in the Pokomo language.
    1895: The first motor boat (Naghea) arrived at Ngao. The boat helped ferry the missionaries and their helpers to outreach the villages along the river with the Gospel.
    During this year the Missionaries sent some of the Christians they had baptized to Germany to enable them to learn different skills that would be of help in propagating the gospel. The first to be sent was Chadhoro Tutu who was sent for a two year training course to learn the blacksmith trade and also to learn the skill of translation different kinds of speeches. He returned to Ngao in 1897.
    1896: The second group to be baptized in Ngao included: 
    • GWIYO
    • In the same year the missionary boat was used to send the Gospel to a place called MELI in Chara (Nduru, Semikaro etc. are in Chara. There renowned witchdoctor, Abameta and his two brothers Kanjala and Nkaduda were converted to Christianity.
    1897: Abameta and His two brothers were poisoned and killed by their people for accepting Christianity. In the same year the Swedish Missionary who already had their camp in Makere in North Tana sold it for 1400 rupees to Neukirchen mission. 
    Messrs Wartenberg and Langach started their work immediately in this area. Later on the relocated to Wenje where there was Bamberga, Weidt, Weibe and Hermann Schmidt 
    1898: The colonial government finally agreed to give the Neukirchen mission 30 acres of land on a 99 year leasehold basis. This land was given in Ngatana, Makere and Marumbini (Zubaki location). The leasehold agreement was signed on November 4th 1894.
    1899: Work of constructing the mission house began in Ngao.
    1900: The construction of the mission house was completed. The missionaries who were residing near the river relocated to the mission house located on Wazungu hill. According to statistics compiled by Missionary Mϋlhoff 90% of the people of Ngao had converted to Christianity.

    In Lamu, the missionaries constructed:
    • A mission house 
    • A children’s school
    • A bible school
    The teachers were Mϋlhoff, Kraft, Eckhard, Pieper and Fink
    During this year Jillo Kutii was sent to Germany for one year to learn carpentry. He returned back from Germany in 1901. 
    1902: Fire broke out in Ngao: the village was burnt down; the carpentry workshop and the furnace (used to burn bricks) were also burnt.
    During this year the first Pokomo New Testament was published together with the Pokomo hymn book and the catechism. 
    As up to 1902 the Kulesa missionary centre was under the Swedes missionaries. The missionary in charge was Hendenstrom. In this year the Swedish Missionaries sold this mission to Neukirchen mission for 3000 rupees. The Neukirchen Missionary, Heyer, took charge of the mission. Later on Beker joined him.
    During this year the motorboat, Naghea 1, broke down after working for seven years under rough environment. This was a big blow because the boat was being used to ferry the sick to dispensaries set up to treat them. 
    During this year (1902) the Superitendent Stursbarg visited the churches in Lamu and Tana River to inspect the work that was continuing.
    1904- 1906 – It is thought that these were the years of the construction and finishing of big church that was until recently under the custodianship of the Methodist. Today this historical heritage lies in ruins and is in dire need of restoration. 
    1906: To establish the work they started, the Neukirchen Missionaries started a college in Lamu that taught Mathematics, world History, Geography, English and other important areas. The college had a two year training program. The first lot of trainee teachers in the college comprised of eight students, five of whom were from Ngao and three from its environs. 
    1909: The Hola mission was built. Missionaries Weidt and Pfeifer were the ones originally sent. Later on Ciliox and Herman Schmidt joined them. 
    1910: The New Motorboat, Naghea 2 arrived at Ngao. The Missionaries now used both boats (Naghea 1 and Naghea 2) to do their work. The workers of the various stations appointed to work with the missionaries were Van Engal, Jungist, Mungatana, Nataniel and Chadhoro. Mr. Pappinga was their leader
    1911: Mrs. Kraft finished translating the book of Psalms in Pokomo language. 
    Baptism at Hola
    1913: Baptism of 469 people from MAKERE (IN GWANO) up to MAKERE (MILALULU).
    In this year there were 623 school children in these areas.
    1914: The Missionaries were all sent to India when the First World War broke out. All the churches came under the stewardship of the Methodist church since their missionaries were English men. 
    The condition during the time of the First World War
    The missionaries were force to leave abruptly without having to say goodbye to members of their congregations. The local teachers and Evangelists continued their work. They included:
    1. Simeon Ubo – Ngao
    2. Reuben Dala- Ngao
    3. Benjamin Ndumari- Mwanadhamba
    4. Mishael Bahari- Garseni (Maweni)
    5. Emmanuel Joseph – Kulesa
    6. Abae Galana – Wenje and so forth. 
    These people worked with a lot of dedication, though they feared because they were products of the Germans.
    1920: Rev. A. J. Hopkins (Methodist) visited the churches which were under the umbrella of Neukirchen. He baptized 370 believers.
    1926: For the first time the German missionaries were allowed to visit their churches among the Pokomo. The first group to arrive included August Kraft, Mrs. Becker and Heinrich May.
    1927: The Giriama in the area received the gospel. Ministers were sent to NYANGORO and other areas in company of Missionaries August Kraft and Becker
    1928: The Missionary Becker wrote a report arguing why the churches in Tana River should not be permitted to take alcohol. The report was necessary after the short missionary work of August Kraft.
    Wilhem Nitch, the superintendent of Neukirchen mission also wrote a report on the work done by August Kraft during this period.
    – Teacher Kanana wrote a similar report to the Neukirchen mission.
    – Missionary August Kraft Committed suicide, at Hola, his work station. His body was carried by a canoe to Ngao under the custodianship of teacher Isaya Mwanijwa where he was buried
    – On this year teacher Benjamin Ndumari and teacher Manase Dyipe were sent to Uha (Tanganyika) for work of evangelism. 
    – Missionary Wilhem May came to Ngao mission station. 
    – Missionary Heinrich Mei left missionary work in Tana River and went to continue the same work in other parts of Kenya. 
    – Through much effort and cooperation between the missionaries and their assistants, the gospel reached Milalulu and Bura Karara. 
    – Missionary Herman Mϋller arrived at Lamu
    – Later on Missionaries Fritz Gissel and Walter Staubing arrived.
    – Later on they were joined by Hanna Gissel. 
    – Construction of Ngao hospital began.
    – The construction of wards and the other buildings was completed in 1932.
    – The Missionary Becker and his wife Rosina Becker returned to his homeland.

    – The first overseer of the Hospital was Miss Lina Leukel. She recruited Mr. Duda, Mashiloo, Steven and Miss Kirage for on job training as nurses. 
    – Martha Gudina was trained as a midwife. 
    – Mr. and Mrs. Dirk Van de Waal came to Ngao accompanied by Mr. Walter Staubing and Fritz Gissel. These had the oversight over the development of all the churches from Hola to Ngao.
    – Mr. Herman Műller was given oversight over education in the following areas:
     Supervision of education in all institutions in the District
     The teachers training college which was at Ngao 
     The special school for mothers.
     Head of Ngao Hill Primary school 
    1935 – 1937 
    Herman Műller as the person in charge of education in the District and also the principal of the teachers training college gave an opportunity to some of the teachers under him to go to Jeans School – Kabete (Nairobi) for further training. Among those who got this opportunity included:
    • Mr. Amos Chadhoro
    • Mr. Kaleb Madyawa
    • Mr. Israel Gudina
    • Mr. Seti Musa
    – All these qualified as P4 Teachers.
    1938 : Educational services in the Tana River District were reorganized afresh as follows:
    Herman Muller took charge of all educational inspectorate services in the District. He was also the Principal of the Teachers training college set up at Ngao.
    Amos Chadhoro was the principal of Ngao Hill primary school.
    Israel Gudina was made the headmaster of Ngao elementary school
    Caleb Madyawa took charge of the boarding sections of the teachers training college and the primary school.
    J.M. Paul was removed from active teaching duty to take office duties. 
    Herman Muller, before going for May Holiday in Germany, He bid farewell to the churches. He was accompanied by a few of his students In the teachers training college to Malindi where he had a meeting with the director of education. After examinations they were qualified to be given P4 certification
    Muller proceeded for his leave with the aim of starting a secondary school on coming back from Germany.
    In September 1939 the Second World War began. All the plans Herman Muller had were Broken. 
    The Missionaries who remained behind were Mr. and Mrs. Wilhem May. They were captured in Wenje where they were serving as missionaries and brought by canoes to Ngao. They bade farewell to the people of Ngao and left as prisoners of war. All the same God’s work continued unhindered. 
    – The Churches and the schools continued with their services to the people with the hope that one day the missionaries would come back.
    – After taking council with some Pokomo elders who were then in Mombasa, our People desired to join with the Church Missionary Society (CMS). This opened doors for Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Beacher to come to Ngao in 1940 and to preach the gospel and taught songs such as Since Jesus came into my heart and so on. 
    – The coming of Beacher opened a door for Paulo Pakia and Teofilo Daido to get an opportunity to go to Kaloleni and join standard 4. Mr. Paul Pakia continued with his studies until he completed P3. He was the first P3 teacher in the District. He studied in Kahuhia College from 1945- 1946. 
    – Mr. Parmena Mungatana and Mr. Yohana Petro also Joined Kaloleni for P4 training in 1942.
    – In 1942 the Methodist Missionaries petitioned the government that it was them that worked closely with the Neukirchen Mission and therefore they had the right to take oversight of the work they had started in their absence. 
    – The taking oversight of the Methodists brought some few changes since in 1943 some of the students in Ngao had to Join the school in Ribe MMS Kaloleni. The first group included:
    • Asser Silvano
    • Yohana Stefano
    • Yona Nkanu
    • Timona Marko

    The second lot that joined the college in 1944 included:
    • Jato Amos (Ngao)
    • Bampae Samaitwa (GadenI)
    • Lisania Onesmo (Ngao)
    • Yuda (Kulesa)
    • Jackson Galana (Wenje)
    • Israel Matayo (Marembo)
    • Daniel Philipo (Ngao)
    1945: Kulifanywa Kofaransa Kubwa sana hapa Ngao iliyohusisha makanisa yote hapa Pokomoni.
    Konfaransa hiyo iliongozwa ni shirika kuu la makanisa Kenya (N.C.C.K) wakitaka kujua hasa kwamba makanisa hapa Pokomoni wangependa kuongozwa na dhehebu gani?
    1945: In this year there was a big conference held at Ngao by the National church council of Kenya (N.C.C.K.). They wanted a decision to be reached on which denomination would take charge of the churches of the Pokomo tribe. The churches of Ngatana, Kulesa, Marembo and those in upper Tana decided that they would be led by the Methodist church. 
    The churches of the Buu, Kalindi and Lamu decided that they will continue with those that bought the gospel light to them, that is the Neukirchen mission.
    After a long discussion it was decided that all the Churches of Tana River can be visited and attended to by any denomination that is able and the people are comfortable with so that no single mission can claim dominance over the area.
    1947: The world council of churches held a meeting in London. The surprising thing was that the Neukirchen mission was not invited to attend the meeting. In the meeting it was decided that the Neukirchen church would not be allowed to continue again in its missionary activities among the Pokomos.
    1948: Reverend Simeon Ubo of Ngao sent away Reverend George Martlew when he came to meet the people of Ngao. Reverend Simeon claimed that Reverend Martlew came to meet the people without involving him; furthermore he accused him and his mission of blocking the missionaries from the Neukirchen mission from coming to Ngao to continue with their missionary activities.
    Reverent Martlew, who was the Superintendent of MMS, on returning to Ribe closed all the Buu schools and also stopped all aid that was coming from the government. The Buu teachers were also suspended from service. 
    As a countermeasure the teachers under the leadership of Young Buu association made arrangement on how to continue working with their people. This was between August 1948 and July 1950.
    During this period the Buu schools performed very well in the national exams, contrary to the expectations of the government and many of the students from the Buu schools went to join Shimo la Tewa, Ribe and other good schools.
    These results motivated the people to send delegation to the ministry of education and the government at large, complaining of the closure of the school and the other punitive measures. The delegation was led by Mr. Israel Gudina and Mr. Kaleb Madyawa.
    These delegates came with the answer that the government had agreed to reopen the schools and reinstate the teachers back after one year. 
    1950: The Lamu D.C. conducted a large meeting here at Ngao in an attempt to reconcile the leader of MMS with the local churches. It was agreed that:
    • The Methodist missionaries could start ministering in the churches that were founded by the Neukirchen mission
    • The leaders of our denomination to work closely with their Methodist counterpart
    • That the Methodists should not change from the course started by the Neukirchen mission
    • That Mr. Amos Chadhoro would assistant educational supervisor in lower Tana 
    • Mr. Ezekiel Jara was brought from Mazeras and was made assistant supervisor of education upper Tana
    1950 – 1966: During this period our churches sought ways and means to enable the Neukirchen mission continue their work here. There was even an effort to initiate the Tana Independent Church. These efforts did not materialize because of sabotage by the Methodist church. The Methodist church was a great obstacle to the return of the Neukirchen missionaries.
    1961: After the 1961 floods some of the dwellers of Garsen relocated to Itsowe. The church was rebuilt there. In 1984 Fritz Gissel and his wife Hannah Gissel, in the company of their colleagues from Neukirchen mission dedicated the church at Itsowe to the Lord. 
    1967: Once more the local churches made an effort to join the African Inland Mission with the sole aim of enabling their missionaries to come to work with them. 
    1970: By God’s providence Lisania M. Buya, who was assistant education officer in the District went to Britain and Joined Nottingham University on a course on Education supervision (September 1969 – August 1970). While there he managed to visit some of the missionaries of the Neukirchen church in West Germany during one of his vacations. It was while he was there that he was able to obtain detailed information as to why they were not permitted to come and work among the Pokomo.
    When He returned back to Britain he made arrangements to visit the A.I.M. Home office in London where He made an appointment to have a meeting with the officials. It was during early days of 1970 he was able to meet the officials and he gave them a detailed account of how Christianity came to Tana River. 
    He then remarked to them how could it could be that Kenya is an independent nation yet spiritually its religious key is in the London A.I.M. home office!
    He told the officials that the refusal to allow the Neukirchen mission missionaries had no moral basis but was a result of differences between the British and Germans.
    He told the officials that on spiritual matters he was small in his community but whatever report he would send to his community would have serious repercussions and they would be squarely responsible. 
    The interesting thing was that they listened to him very keenly. When he finished tanked they thanked him but they requested to answer him later. 
    Though there was no communication after that, the Neukirchen Missionaries were permitted to visit the churches they founded in Tana River. 
    1987: All the A.I.C. churches together with the Neukirchen Mission in Germany had centenary celebrations to mark 100 years since the missionaries came to Ngao. 
    1967: the churches under the umbrella of Neukirchen church Joined African inland church Kenya 
    1969: Towards the end of August 1969 Mr. Amos Chadhoro Passed away at the age of 64 years
    1970: After 34 years the missionaries were able to come back to Tana River again. 
    1972: Bishop Mulwa laid the foundation stone of the New A.I.C. Church Ngao
    1977: Mama Martha Gudina passed away 
    1979: January President Daniel Arap Moi came and officially opened the new A.I.C. church at Ngao. 
    !972: Bishop Welligton Mulwa (Bishop wa AIC Kenya) alikuja Ngao AIC church na kuweka jiwe la msingi wake.
    Note from Lysania Buya
    This article is the original work of the late teacher and magistrate J.M. Paul before he went to be with the Lord. 
    I did some few correction of the original manuscript and did some few additions which he was not able to do.

        This message has been edited by sbonayab on May 28, 2016 4:24 AM

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